The Implications Of Eternal Peace For Nigeria S Economic Growth Term paper

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INTRODUCTION The term of peace is defined as sociopolitical and environment without violence, conflicts, war, coups, revolution, riots, ethnic cleanings, election violence, non-judicial killings, murders, assassinations, abductions, terrorist attacks, discrimination, and violence against women. The studies in the relation to peace and economic growth have been taken placed in different angles. Previous studies have measured the peace by sociopolitical stability and made different conclusions. Most of studies with cross country and time series data have tried to measure the peace and its impact on economic growth by means of causes for non- peace environment which is termed by scholars as sociopolitical instability . eternal peace therefore has to do with an everlasting peace ,long lasting peace. IMPLICATION OF PEACE ON NIGERIA’S ECONOMY It might be puzzling to predicate sustainable peace and security to economic development. This needs not to be so. According to Lowry (cited in Goodwin, 1991:5-6), there is an emphasis upon security through economic self-sufficiency, the absence of which no meaningful understanding could occur. Understanding the place of national economy is central to any serious analysis of peace and security in modern societies. This has become imperative because studying security and peace matters from purely military perspective has now become practically impossible. This of course is closely related to the Cold-War fall-out that sees a paradigmatic shift in security studies from conventional security strategies to non-conventional one that encompasses political and economic development, equitable social institutions and opening up of the public environment for dialogue and negotiations in place of force and violence. Socio-economic development of a country is the greatest indicator of any level of peace and security. This is because social indices of development such as poverty, unemployment and crime levels are not only a direct function of the level of development attained by a national economy, but also by the level of equality (or inequality) inherent in such a development. The Nigerian economy has since the early 1980s taken a turn for the worst. This situation is occasioned by its very nature: weak industrial and productive base driven Primarily by a mono-culturally, export oriented royalty oil sector. For instance, crude oil accounts for about 80% of all government revenues, 90-95% of export revenues and over 90% of foreign exchange earnings from 1980-2001 (Analysis, Vol.1. No.3,September 2002:23).This exposes Nigeria not only to a climate of fear, complete subordination to foreign sources and absolute dependence of the economy on foreign countries, but also exposes the porous nature of the indigenous productive base. And this is very important to a meaningful and sustainable development. As a rule, because of this poor level of economic development in Nigeria, the mass of the citizenry could not partake in gainful endeavors that are necessary to any stability and order in the country (Anyanwu, 1992:1). This undeveloped nature of the national economy makes it possible and even nourishing, for all manner of anti-social tendencies – drug abuse, prostitution, youth militancy and violence ,moral deprivation, armed robbery, assassinations, and general level of societal insecurity that characterized Nigeria over the last ten years – to grow which in themselves have become serious security threats to the country (Maier, 2000:65) PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT ADVISOR Nigeria is significantly plagued by internal conflict and violence with considerable impact on the sustainability of her development endeavors, the consolidation of democracy, the viability of the state system. Conflict also threatens the corporate existence of the country as a federation with over 300 ethnic groups, distributed among 36 states and a federal capital territory, further subdivided into 774 local government areas. Prolonged military rule for 30 out of the 52 years of independence has had a considerable effect on party democracy and elections, eroding constitutional federalism through massive centralization of power and resources. Nigeria’s plural and diverse ethnic, regional, and religious character is a key defining context of its electoral democracy and conflict dynamics. Generally, there are three broad typologies of conflict in Nigeria, namely, identity-based conflict, resource-based conflict and power-based conflict, which have diverse consequences on the country’s development. Significant resources have been invested to address these violent internal conflicts because of the acknowledgement that they threaten the country’s cohesion and stability if left unattended. However, despite the significant capabilities for reducing and managing internal conflicts, the initiatives are often ad hoc and reactive, with limited overall impact. The situation of democratic governance in Nigeria has continued to improve since 1999 when the country returned to civilian rule. However, major threats to Nigeria’s stability, internal security and democratic consolidation persist, as evident by recurring ethno-religious violence in northern Nigeria, perpetuated by the Boko Haram extremist Islamic sect, the militant insurgency in the Niger Delta region and rampant cases of kidnapping in the South East. The widespread insecurity and growing terrorism, which expose large sections of the population to untold risks and negative impact on the economy is largely driven by economic and social factors (especially unemployment and endemic poverty), marginalization, social exclusion, mismanagement of public resources, and weak sense of national identity. Consequently, issues of national unity and cohesion remain core to national discourse, accentuating the need to strengthen mechanisms to address vulnerability and build resilience In May 2013, the President declared and enforced a state of emergency in three northern states – Borno, Yobe and Adamawa. The declaration of emergency was necessitated by the intensified activities of the deadly Boko Haram sect in the North-East parts of the country and the increasing threats to national security and cohesion. Despite the successes recorded by the military operations, the decision of the President to withhold statutory allocations to the affected states and local governments whose elected officials are still in place and the humanitarian crises arising from the military operations, have led to questions on the rule of engagement and respect for human right. Other challenges for Nigeria currently are the increasing elite fragmentation and how the politics of the emergency rule is feeding into the political calculations for the 2015 general elections. Elite fragmentation and the difficulty of reaching political settlement is playing out in the deepening internal crisis within the ruling PDP and the split in the Nigeria Governors’ Forum (NGF). As Nigeria moves closer to the 2015 general elections, the controversy generated by power shift within the ruling PDP and the debate on President Goodluck Jonathan running for a second term in 2015 are critical. The Peace and Development Advisor will support and build on the on-going conflict prevention and dialogue efforts in Nigeria, provide up-to-date monitoring and analysis of the political situation in the country, and manage the newly developed National Peace Architecture project. Working under the direct supervision of the UN Resident Coordinator, the Peace and Development Advisor will work with the UNDP Country Office as well as the UNCT to promote dialogue at federal, state and local levels, and to advise on peaceful management of natural resources. In line with the standard operating procedures of the Joint UNDP/DPA Programme on Building National Capacities for Conflict Prevention, the PDA will regularly communicate with both UNDP/BCPR and DPA. Boko haram and its consequences In May, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan suspended the constitution and declared a state of emergency in three states at the northeastern tip of Nigeria. On August 10-11, an attack on a mosque in the state of Maiduguri left 56 people dead — Boko Haram is largely believed to have been responsible. Boko Haram, the militant Islamist
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