Three Phenomena Within Social Cognition Essay

Three Phenomena Within Social Cognition Term paper

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Question number 6. Describe and evaluate any three phenomena within social cognition (Kelley’s covariation model, the fundamental attribution error, actor-observer differences,) and evaluate their explanations In social cognition causal attribution is one the most important models. In causal attribution we attempt to find cause-effect relationships between human behavior and possible causes which made it happen. There are seven different theories of causal attribution, and I shall talk about the Kelley’s covariation model and then talk about some biases in attribution.
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Kelley’s covariation model Kelley’s covariation model is a form of attribution model, possibly the best known of them all. According to his model, an observer attributes the behavior of people either to their person, the behavior is due the individual characteristics of the person performing the act, entity, the behavior is caused by the target, or circumstance, the behavior is caused by the circumstances of the event. When doing this, the observer uses three types of information, although not
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all of this information is always available. These are: Consistency, whether the behavior is consistent across different situations, Distinctiveness, whether the persons reaction is the same in all cases or not, and Consensus, do other people react the way to similar stimuli. For example , A pushes B: Interpretation of Information Causal Information available Consensus Distinctiveness Consistency Attribution Nobody else pushes B High Person A also pushes other people Low A has previously pushed B High Others
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push B Low Entity A pushes only B High A has previously pushed B High Nobody else pushes B Low Circumstance A pushes only B High A has not previously pushed B Low From our example, we can, by way of causal attribution deduce that A does not like B, because A only pushes B and nobody else, and nobody else pushes B. If however the consistency is low, people look for other alternative causes for the behavior, i.e. they
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During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In ...
discount it. The covariation principle has its uses, however, it has flaws as well, firstly, we don’t always have enough information available to form "proper" attributions, secondly, most research on it has been done in artificial laboratory conditions, which do not give an accurate picture of the real world situations, and thirdly, people might use some other form of attribution when evaluating people’s behavior. Later on, Kelley developed the notion of causal schemas, a kind of belief that is
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During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In 1984, Piaget ...
built from experience and used to fill the gaps in our knowledge. These schemas have some support from research Kun and Weiner, 1973, but other researchers do not universally accept them. One schema is the multiple necessary cause schema, which states that a particular event requires at least two causes. Add something about it here. The Fundamental Attribution error In the fundamental attribution error, people tend to make dispositional attributions for the behavior of others even when there are clear
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external factors at play. Ross discovered it in 1977. A famous example is that of the pro- and anti- Castro speeches . In this study students read speeches written by their fellow students, which were either pro-Castro or anti-Castro. The writers either had had a choice to write pro- or anti-Castro speech or not. When there was a choice, the participants reasoned that those who wrote an anti-Castro speech were against him those who wrote a pro-Castro speech were in
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favor of him. When the participants read speeches when people did not have a choice, they still assumed the same, i.e. they still made a dispositional attribution although they knew that the students had been ordered to write that speech. They overlooked
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