The Etruscans The Great Civilization Of Antiquity Term paper
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The Etruscans The Etruscans are one of those mystery peoples of the ancient world who seem to have appeared for a short time in history, then to have disappeared altogether. Although ...
The Etruscans were an enigmatic race that populated much of Italy between the rivers Po and Tiber. The Etruscans were seen as a strange, different people in antiquity and had little or no similarities in culture or traditions with there neighbours. Historians believe that the Etruscan civilization was established between the tenth and eleventh century BC. There has been evidence from archaeological digs that the Etruscans were living in Italy from at least the time of the Iron Age and
Life Governed By Religion CHAPTER I Life Governed by Religion 1. INTRODUCTION BETWEEN Florence and Rome lies the inviting land of Tuscany. This was in ancient times the home of a civilized ...
it is also believed that the Etruscans ended up laying the foundation of Rome. However most historians are still uncertain about the origin of the Etruscan development and culture. Of the well-known Etruscan cities, the majority are virtually unexplored, and some of them are now buried underneath new towns that arose before the archaeologists could find out where these cities were. Others have been found by accident and had only a brief and limited excavation time. There were seven
Roman Art And Architecture Roman Art and Architecture Roman art and architecture was the art and architecture of Rome and its empire, which in its golden era extended from the British Isles to the ...
major centres in the Etruscan territory. They were: Tarquinii, Caere, Vulci, Vetulonia, Volaterrae, Clusium and Veii. Tarquinii was the first Etruscan centre to respond to an external desire for its metals by completing the process of urbanization. It was positioned on the southwest tip of the territory. It was surrounded by land on three sides, and water on the other. It controlled much of the mining in Etruria and was one of the major port centres for the empires naval
Pompeii Pompeii is possibly the best-documented catastrophe in Antiquity. Because of it, we know now how the Pompeians lived because they left behind an extensive legacy of art, including monuments, sculptures ...
ships. Caere was strategically located at the junction of the coastal plains and the hills, and history suggests that it may have also had access to the mines of Tarquinii. The people of Caere were very strong on the sea. They were very involved in importing and exporting ;as well they had a very strong navy. These people also carried on a great relationship with the Roman’s which helped them greatly on some occasions. Vulci was located on the north side of Tarquinii. The two bases of Vulci’s hinterland were the valleys of the Fiora and Albegna. It was assumed that this state also had a navy of its own. The maritime plain of Vulci was probably at on one time covered with pine trees that could be used as ships timber. And although the states coast was not easily navigational it is believed they had numerous ports. Vetulonia possessed quite a considerable hinterland, like other Etruscan states, as well as ports for its own naval fleet. This state’s history if fairly shady because not a lot of artefacts have been recovered to tell us about it. Volaterrae was one of the more important states in Etruria, so obviously they had a large port area with many ships. The interior of the state however was mainly marshland and was not very good for much use. Many important people lived in Volaterrae however, as we can tell by the jewellery and gold in the tombs that have been discovered. Clusium sixth century king, Lars Porsenna, was regarded as the most powerful Etruscan of all time. The wealth of this state came mainly form agriculture as they were not on the coast so they did not have a navy and they also did not have access to the metals that the other states had. They were also very gifted in making irrigation systems for their agricultural needs. Veii’s hinterland was a thick network of farms, which gave it some of its wealth. Their main source of wealth however, was salt. This was a great export because of its excellent preserving qualities. This made Veii one of the richest states in Etruria. Etruscan art has always been recognized as beautiful and exquisite. Their art began as engravings on the backs of mirrors. They used various themes, both religious and secular. In the 4th century vignettes of daily life, women at their toilet and theatrical and erotic scenes with a tendency towards scepticism and caricature became popular.# Children also appear frequently in engravings on the mirrors. One such engraving shows the triplets Kabeiri, at the foot of Mt.Olympus with Mercury, Minerva, and a third unknown Goddess. Etruscan mirror engraving also came to include nude male and female figures. Etruscan craftsmen did not confine their talents to just mirrors, they also engraved on tombs, bronze or terra-cotta statues, or temple walls. A Bronze cistae# was another piece for an engraver to
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1) Bloch, Raymond. The Etruscans, New York, Fredrick A. Praeger, Inc. Publishers, 1958.
2) Bonfante, Larissa. Etruscan Life and Afterlife, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1986.
3) Grant, Michael. The Etruscans, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1980
4) Johnstone, M.A.. Etruria Past and Present, London, Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1930
5) Keller, Werner. The Etruscans, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1974
6) Strong, Donald. The Early Etruscans, New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1968
7)Vaughan, Agnes Carr. Those Mysterious Etruscans, New York, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964
8) Wellard, J. The Search For The Etruscans, New York, Saturday Rev
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