Cellulose, its structure and properties. Essay

Cellulose Its Structure And Properties Term paper

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Cellulose As A Polymer
Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants. It consists of long chains of beta-D-glucose molecules linked by 1-4 glycosidic bonds which were formed by ...
Properties of Cellulose

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate, or polysaccharide consisting of 3,000 or more glucose units. The basic structural component of plant cell walls, cellulose comprises about 33 percent of all vegetable matter (90 percent of cotton and 50 percent of wood are cellulose) and is the most abundant of all naturally occurring organic compounds

A natural polymer made up from D-glucose (C6H12O6) monomer units, cellulose contains glucose units which link together to form long unbranched chains.


The Importance of Water to Life on Earth a look at the unique structure and behavior of the water molecule by Steven Luscher, Student Water ...
of Cellulose
As shown in figure 1 below, cellulose has a structure in which a –O- glycosidic bond linking the monomers is formed. This is done by eliminating a molecule of water from two b-D-glucose molecules in a condensation reaction. As can be seen in figure 1, the glycosidic bond joins carbon atom 1 on one glucose ring to carbon atom 4´ ;on the adjacent ring ;hence, cellulose can be described as poly(1,4´-b-D-glucose).

Figure 1.

The polymer chains in

The Importance of Water to Life on Eartha look at the unique structure and behavior of the water molecule-----Water is the most important substance in our evolution and our daily ...
cellulose takes up a linear structure due to the 1,4-b glycosidic linkages. The repeating unit in cellulose is actually made up of two glucose units with each glucose unit in the linear chain being ‘turned over´ ;when compared with its preceding unit. Because of the positioning of the three hydroxyl groups on each glucose monomer, strong hydrogen bonds are formed between these and the hydroxyl groups on adjacent chains. The effect this has can be seen in figure 2 below.

Dietary Fibre
INTRODUCTORY FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIETARY FIBRE : SIGNIFICANT TO HUMAN HEALTH OR NOT? In scientific terms, dietary fibre is a mixture of components derived from plant cell wall material ...

Figure 2

Because of this rigid, almost tessellating structure between its chains, cellulose is:
· ;a rigid and fibrous polymer
· ;insoluble in water
· ;suitable for structural roles in plants


Cotton is composed of 87-90% cellulose with the cotton fibres containing polymer chains in both amorphous and crystalline forms. The chains contained within the microfibril are held together by hydrogen bonds. Because cotton is constructed largely of cellulose, it is a material that is stiff and has

Biology Molecule
Unit 1 -man is high 50’s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% ...
a high tensile strength. Also, due to the large number of hydroxyl groups on the polymer chains, cotton absorbs water without actually feeling wet.

In general, it is because of the large percentage of cellulose that cotton is made of that cotton is such a versatile and widely used material.

Viscose Rayon

Viscose rayon can be produced in a variety of forms. Its ability to absorb moisture makes it ideal for viscose clothing. Often marketed and sold as

Biology Molecule
Unit 1 -man is high 50’s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% ...
artificial silk, it is widely used in outdoor clothes. It is also used in carpets and other home furnishings and for industrial applications such as tire cords and surgical materials.

The manufacture of viscose rayon is outlined below:

Figure 3

Cellophane can be obtained when the viscose solution obtained from the methods outlined above is extruded through a narrow slit (instead of through spinnerets) into an acid bath. The acid regenerates the cellulose, forming a film. Further

Biology Molecule
Unit 1 -man is high 50’s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% 3) ...
treatment, such as washing and bleaching, yields cellophane. Highly impermeable to dry gases, grease, and bacteria, cellophane is used mainly to package food and other perishables. It is frequently given a moisture-proof coating and is sometimes dyed.

Cellulose Nitrate
The manufacture of cellulose nitrate is shown below:
Figure 4

Cellulose trinitrate is used as a propellant for bullets due to the fact that when most of the –OH groups are nitrated, it can be explosive. Celluloid, a plastic used

Timber Project
1. Timber has been a building material since man first came out of his cave. The reasons for this are due to timber being a plentiful product and the ...
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