Animal Experimentation Essay

Animal Experimentation Essay

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Animal Experimentation
When faced with the choice of sparing an animal's life or saving a human being, most people would reasonably choose to save the human. But are human needs more important ...
Animal Experimentation Introduction Animal experimentation has been a part of biomedical and behavioral research for several millennia ;experiments with animals were conducted in Greece over 2,000 years ago. Many advances in medicine and in the understanding of how organisms function have been the direct result of animal experimentation. Concern over the welfare of laboratory animals is also not new, as reflected in the activities of various animal welfare and antivivisectionist groups dating back to the nineteenth century.
Animal Experimentation
Animal Experimentation ANIMAL RIGHTS-- The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded in England in 1824 to promote humane treatment of work animals, such as cattle and ...
This concern has led to laws and regulations governing the use of animals in research and to various guides and statements of principle designed to ensure humane treatment and use of laboratory animals. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Use of Animals in Research Some of the earliest recorded studies involving animals were performed by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), who revealed anatomical differences among animals by dissecting them (Rowan, 1984). The Greek physician Galen (A.D. 129-199) maintained that experimentation led to scientific
Alternatives To Animal Experimentation
The search for alternative methods to animal testing is underway in many laboratories across the entire world. While success has been made, the research is far from over. These alternatives ...
progress and is said to have been the first to conduct demonstrations with live animals--specifically pigs-a practice later extended to other species and termed "vivisection" (Loew, 1982). However, it was not until the sixteenth century that many experiments on animals began to be recorded. In 1628, William Harvey published his work on the heart and the movement of blood in animals (French, 1975). In the 18OOs, when France became one of the leading centers of experimental biology and medicine-marked by
Animal Experimentation
Animal Experimentation Introduction Animal experimentation has been a part of biomedical and behavioral research for several millennia ;experiments with animals were conducted in Greece over 2,000 years ago. Many advances ...
the work of such scientists as Francis Magendie in experimental physiology, Claude Bernard in experimental medicine, and Louis Pasteur in microbiology and immunology-investigators regularly used animals in biomedical research (McGrew, 1985). Research in biology progressed at an increasing pace starting around 1850, with many of the advances resulting from experiments involving animals. Helmholtz studied the physical and chemical activities associated with the nerve impulse ;Virchow developed the science of cellular pathology, which led the way to a more rational
Animal Experimentation
Animal Experimentation Introduction Animal experimentation has been a part of biomedical and behavioral research for several millennia ;experiments with animals were conducted in Greece over 2,000 years ago. Many advances ...
understanding of disease processes ;Pasteur began the studies that led to immunization for anthrax and inoculation for rabies ;and Koch started a long series of studies that would firmly establish the germ theory of disease. Lister performed the first antiseptic surgery in 1878, and Metchnikoff discovered the antibacterial activities of white blood cells in 1884. The first hormone was extracted in 1902. Ehrlich developed a chemical treatment for syphilis in 1909, and laboratory tissue culture began in 1910. By 1912,
Animal Experimentation
...The time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of men. Leonardo Da Vinci Animal experimentation ...
nutritional deficiencies were sufficiently well understood to allow scientists to coin the word "vitamin." In 1920, Banting and Best isolated insulin, which led to therapy for diabetes mellitus. Mter 1920, the results of science-based biological research and their medical applications followed so rapidly and in such numbers that they cannot be catalogued here. Concerns over Animal Use The first widespread opposition to the use of animals in research was expressed in the nineteenth century. Even before this, however,
Animal Experimentation
Animal Experimentation The United States government should come up with alternatives to animal experimentation. The use of animals in research, testing, and education is an issue of increasing concern ...
concern had arisen about the treatment of farm animals. The first piece of legislation to forbid cruelty to animals was adopted by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1641 and stated that "No man shall exercise any tyranny or cruelty towards any brute creatures which are usually kept for man's use" (Stone, 1977). In England, Martin's Act was enacted in 1822 to provide protection for farm animals. In 1824, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) was
Animal experimentation
Abstract   ;  ;  ;  ; Animal experimentation has been going on for a while now and people have been protesting against it since it has begun. It seems now days ...
founded to ensure that this act was observed. In 1865, Henry Bergh brought the SPCA idea to America (Thrner, 1980). He was motivated not by the use of animals in research but by the ill-treatment of horses that he observed in czarist Russia. In the second half of the nineteenth century, concerns for the welfare of farm animals expanded to include animals used in scientific research. The antivivisectionist movement in England, which sought to abolish the use of
Animal Experimentation
Imagine being dragged from your bed, strapped into a chair, eyes and mouth forced open, chemicals injected into your body, irritating solutions flushed into your eyes and corrosive substances applied ...
animals in research, became engaged in large-scale public agitation in 1870, coincident with the development of experimental physiology and the rapid growth of biomedical research. In 1876, a royal commission appointed to investigate vivisection issued a report that led to enactment of the Cruelty to Animals Act. The act did not abolish all animal experimentation, as desired by the antivivisection movement. Rather, it required experimenters to be licensed by the government for experiments that were expected to cause pain in
Animal Experimentation
Animal Experimentation As playing with your adorable pet dog, named Bailey, anews commercial flashes across the screen about animalexperimentation. After the commercial you ponder upon whathappens to the thousands ...
vertebrates. As animal experimentation increased in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century, animal sympathizers in this country also became alarmed. The first American antivivisectionist society was founded in Philadelphia in 1883, followed by the formation of similar societies in New York in 1892 and Boston in 1895. Like their predecessors in England, these groups sought to abolish the use of animals in biomedical research, but they were far less prominent or influential than the
Animal Experimentation
ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION Holly Anderson was a strong supporter for animal rights. When she was a little girl, she saw a cat get run over by a car. As she watched ...
major animal-protection societies, such as the American SPCA, the Massachusetts SPCA, and the American Humane Association (Turner, 1980). Unsuccessful in its efforts toward the end of the nineteenth century to abolish the use of laboratory animals (Cohen and Loew, 1984), the antivivisectionist movement declined in the early twentieth century. However, the animal welfare movement remained active, and in the 195Os and 1960s its increasing strength led to federal regulation of animal experimentation. The Animal Welfare Act was passed in
Animal Experimentation
Annually, millions of animals suffer and die in painful tests in order to determine the safety of cosmetics. Substances like eye shadow and soap are tested on rabbits, guinea ...
1966 and amended in 1970, 1976, and 1985. Similar laws have been enacted in other countries to regulate the treatment of laboratory animals (Hampson, 1985). Concern over the welfare of animals used in research has
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