african history Essay

African History Essay

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INTRODUCTION Africa\'s history did not begin in slavery, and despite the peculiarity, horror, and duration of enslavement of Africans, slavery occupies a minor timeframe in the 120,000 years of African history (0.5% of African history). In the last 50 years much has been done to combat the false and negative views about the history of Africa and Africans, which were developed in Europe in order to justify the Transatlantic Slave Trade and European colonial rule in Africa that followed it. Unfortunately the Eurocentric take on Africa and Eurocentric linguistics has distorted how some African scholars see Africa. Many have been draining the African historical record by boxing in what is, and what does not constitutes an authentic African experience. Eurocentric terminologies place certain concepts outside of the African domain with this habit of \"tribalizing\" Africa ;dark, pagan, licentious, unorganized, base and emotive FACTS TO COUNTER TREVOR RUPER’S SAY THAT AFRICA HAS NO HISTORY In the nineteenth century the German philosopher Hegel simply declared ‘Africa is no historical part of the world. \' This openly racist view, that Africa had no history, was repeated by Hugh Trevor-Roper, Regis Professor of History at Oxford University, as late as 1963. The legacy of the African Holocaust has made a profound affect on African studies, where the default attitude is to deny African have contributed anything to what is considered civilization. Africans are playing on a chessboard where all the pieces are white. The volumes of publish works by the Hitler\'s of the African Holocaust is impossible for Africans to gain any foothold and authorities stance in their history.\" So Ethiopia is a great civilization so it must be \"outside of African origin\", Great Zimbabwe, Ancient Egypt, Moorish Islamic Spain are categorically denied as having anything African. According to Isaac Ose i, ‘’Africa had a history, long before the Europeans came to our shores. But the Europeans came to our shores and because they were attracted by what those who came first found (in our case it\'s gold), and the first European establishment which established in Ghana was established at a place called el mina, (the mine), because gold was so abundant and they came with their manufacturing products in exchange for gold. So the Europeans initially came to our country to trade! As partners. It is perhaps the error of the slave trade which changed the perceptions of Europeans about Africans, when our own people were regarded as commodities’’ AFRICAN KINGDOMS Africa produced a plethora of advanced civilizations. The most notable of these is the Nile Valley civilization From 3,000 BCE (founding of the First Dynasty), all the way until it was conquered by Persia around 525 BCE. So about 2,500 years. This was followed by the great civilizations of Axum and D\'mt, and later by the great Islamic civilizations of the Sahel (Mali, Songhai, and the last in the later Sokoto). The famous Hajj of Mansa Musa in the 13th century was so profound it altered the currency of every country he passed through with his entourage. Later the Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Northern Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto . It was founded during the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio. Throughout the 1800s, it was one of the largest and most powerful empires in sub-Saharan Africa until British conquest in 1903. Despite the new wave of myths regarding Nubia and Kemet (Ancient Egypt) It is clear that Kemet and Nubia were neighboring African Civilizations just as Aksum and Nubia. Difference does’t mean Nubia was a ‘black race’ and Kemet wasn’t. Both groups were ethnic groups of indigenous African origin. The ethnic differences were no more significant than Ethiopians versus Kenyans. The largest empire in Ancient African history was the Songhai empire with its iconic leader Askia. The Aksum empire was the 3rd largest African empire at 1.25 million sq km. In the sixth century, the kingdom of Aksum (Axum) was doing what many elsewhere had been doing: pursuing trade and empire. Its exports of ivory, glass crystal, brass and copper items, and perhaps slaves, among other things, had brought prosperity to the kingdom. MAJOR FACTS For the vast civilizations that existed in Africa. Christianity existed in Ethiopia long before there was the \"Church of England\". Islam existed in Africa before it even reached outside of what is today the hinterland of Saudi Arabia. Libraries and universities existed in Islamic cities such as Timbuktu, where advance mathematics and astrology were studied. In Ethiopia for 100s of years the Kebra Negast was written in the only surviving African native script Ge\'ez. Ethiopia was the only African nation to actively repel colonialism and is one of the world oldest continuous civilizations. Africa has always been part of the Biblical, Jewish and Islamic world. It was a common site to see Ethiopians in Rome or anywhere in the \"known\" world. Modern day Israel was also a site for Ethiopian pilgrimage and Mecca was for Muslim Africa. The historical trip of Kanka Musa was said to alter the economy of every state he passed through on his way to Mecca. So the story of Africa we are still clinging to is Victim Victim Victim. Mansa Musa clearly and utterly demonstrates not only that Africans were powerful, but also international. Mansa Musa remains the only man in recorded history to singularly control the gold value of the entire Mediterrian and was one of the richest men in history. Some of the most notable civilizations in human history come out of the Nile Valley in Africa, of these we know KMT (Ancient Egypt) and Nubia. Still today Western historians, as in the past, have tried to deny the African identity of these kingdoms, which are geographically located in Africa. Yet no one has seriously said Greece was not a European civilization, or Ancient China was not an Asian civilization. So this double standard is the legacy of the white washing of Africa history to satisfy the myth that Africa is outside of humanity, civilization and thus suitable for harvest by more
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