Properties of Water Essay

Properties Of Water Term paper

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Cohesion: forces that act between like particles. Cohesion holds molecules of liquid to one another e.g. to form a drop • The hydrogen bonding of water creates its strong cohesive forces Adhesion: forces of attraction between unlike particles (causes a substance to stick to another substance). Adhesion causes liquid to spread out in a thin film. • If adhesive forces (dispersion forces) are stronger than cohesive, than liquid spreads over the surface  “liquid wets the surface”. • If cohesive forces are stronger than adhesive, than the liquid stays as drops on the surface. • Strong hydrogen bonds in water result in strong cohesive forces. If water were to wet some other substance, than strong adhesive force is required. H2O wets something with which it can form stronger hydrogen bonds. • The curvature of liquid (meniscus) in a glass vessel depends on whether the wets the surface – concave up (water in a beaker) - hydrogen bonds between water and glass stronger than hydrogen bonds in water. Or whether the liquid in beaker is unable to wet the surface – concave down (mercury in beaker) - cohesive metallic bonds stronger than weak dispersion forces that exist between mercury and glass). Capillary Attraction: the strong attraction of the liquid to the surface of a small diameter tube causing it to rise. Adhesive forces draw liquid up the walls of the tube until the weight of liquid column balances the adhesive force of attraction. • The narrower the tube, the further water rises. • Materials which ‘soak up’ liquids (e.g. Cotton wool) contain air spaces through which liquids move by capillary attraction. • Polythene (waterproof) is laid at the base of concrete buildings stop the capillary attraction known as damp course Hardness and Brittleness: • Water ice is of intermediate hardness – harder than many other covalent molecular substances due to strong hydrogen bonds. Softer than metals, ionic and covalent network • The highly directional nature of bonds result in ordered structure making crystal hard and brittle. • Ice is very brittle – lattice, when subjected to force cannot deform its shape and shatters as hydrogen bonds break (substances are brittle because distorting crystal brings like charges together and they repel each other). Expansion on freezing: water expands on freezing (due to hydrogen bonding). Hydrogen bonding is much more directional. O has four H atoms (two covalently bonded and 2 hydrogen bonded). This arrangement is tetrahedral and H bonds force the atoms apart when it freezes. H2O (l) moves more vigorously and breaks some hydrogen bonding and thus H2O (L) molecules are closer together – thus H2O (l) has higher density than H2O(s). Thus when freezing, the hydrogen bonds force the molecules apart. 4 Celsius = densest. (Test: Ice floats on water) Polar Bonds o Pairs of electron are shared evenly between identical atoms and are shared unevenly between heteroatomic molecules (e.g.
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