Rain Water Harvesting Essay

Rain Water Harvesting Essay

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Water is essential for the entire ecosystem. A sufficient clean drinking water supply is essential to life. Over the years, rising populations, growing industrialization and expanding agriculture have pushed the demand water. After decades of work by governments and organizations to bring potable water to the poorer people of the world, the situation is still dire. Though 70% of the earth\'s geographical area is covered by water, only 1% of it is potable, the rest being unsafe for consumption. Natural water sources, especially rivers, canals, ponds, wells, etc. are being exploited, mistreated and contaminated, making drinking from them unsafe. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an option that has been adopted in many areas of the world where conventional water supply systems have failed to meet people’s needs. Rainwater harvesting is a technology used to collect rain water on the roofs of buildings and storing it underground for later use. This process of collecting water has been practiced for over 4,000 years throughout the world and has provided drinking water, domestic water and water for livestock and irrigation. In this present situation, rain water harvesting is becoming an entirely new supply source and is rather more than a conservative technique. It is the most suitable solution to meet the increasing demand of the scare water supply. The various other methods of storing rain water are: a) Roof catchment b) Gutters c) Downpipes d) Rain water/Storm water drains e) Filter chamber f) Ground water recharge structures like pit, trench, tube well or combination of above structures. Our city Delhi has been facing scarcity of water from last few years. Availability of water in Delhi is 232 litres per capita, but some parts get 30 litres per capita, whereas, 5% of the population gets 450 litres per day. 15% of the water is lost during distribution and about 40% is stolen. Only 20% of the water available is used for cooking and drinking, rest is used for washing etc. 90% of drinking water in India comes from ground water resources, while in Delhi, 70% of the requirements are met from surface water sources, because underground water is fast depleting in quantity and quality. Percolation is less as the earth surface is covered with buildings, roads, pavements etc, lower the water table level by 20m in some areas.60% of the rainwater goes down the drain as surface runoff. Rain water harvesting has many advantages. Its construction method is quite easy and relatively cheap material can be used for the construction of containers and collecting surfaces. It has low maintenance costs and requirements. The collected rain water can be consumed without treatment providing a clean collecting surface has been used. As seen above, rainwater harvesting offers a solution which is not only practical but also economical and environmentally feasible. It will indeed become inherent in the lifestyle of every man. So this method of storing water can be proved beneficial for the optimum use of water.

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