Conflict In King Lear Historical And Social Context Essay
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WAYS OF READING THE TEMPEST: Greenblatt Vs Schneider Shakespeare criticism has long been recognised as a touchstone to shifts in our critical discourses. The following paper constitutes an examination of ...
Conflict lies at the heart of tragedy. How have the various conflicts in King Lear been presented and received in different historical and social contexts?
In your response refer to at least three critical interpretations (including your own) and use elements of two productions of the play you have seen to support your points.
King Lear is undoubtedly Shakespeare’s greatest tragedy, and quite possibly the greatest of all time. Although the final scenes of the play may make us cringe and leave a foul taste in our mouths, it would be wrong for us to wish that they be altered. The death of Cordelia, despite being heartrending and seemingly unnecessary to most people, stems from a number of underlying conflicts within the play that send messages relevant to every audience member. Interpretations of these messages have varied since the initial performance of King Lear in 1606 and are continually shifting and adapting to changes within society and human development in general. Similarly, productions of the play have differed considerably depending upon the personal circumstances and views of the director as well as the audience, who are ultimately responsible for discovering their own personal interpretation of the play. Nahum Tate’s The History of King Lear, written in 1681, is one of several attempts at rewriting King Lear during the 18th and 19th centuries in order to make it apply better to a specific audience and be less sensitive to political issues of the time, in this instance the restoration of Charles II to the English throne. Although still called a tragedy, Tate’s version sees Lear return to rule his kingdom and Cordelia marry Edgar. Although the main conflicts still exist, Shakespeare’s point about the nature of humanity is diminished by the complete, calculated redemption at the play's conclusion. While several of the conflicts within King Lear have been altered over the past 400 years in order to increase the appeal of the play to a particular audience of the time, ultimately the timelessness of Shakespeare’s language will see the original play outlast any such imitation.
One reason for the longevity of King Lear is the way it confronts issues that are central and relevant to any society throughout any period of time. The exchange of power between children and their parents and the ensuing conflict occurs in every generation as parents struggle to give up control of their children while the children themselves long for independence. The ingratitude of children towards their parents is a fundamental part of this conflict and one that Michael Ignatieff considers the play principally revolves around. In what can be termed a post-modern interpretation of King Lear, Ignatieff argues that the conflict evident between Lear and his two eldest daughters, Gonerill and Regan, is a result of the most elementary of parental mistakes. He claims that Lear’s curses upon Gonerill (I.iv.229-244) that attempt to bring barrenness and sterility upon her are far from ravings of dementia but a result of an unspoken primal anger that dwells within all families, which is the fury of old men at the failure of their own powers and the subsequent envy of the sexual ripeness of their own children .
Jonathon Miller heightens the conflict between Lear and his eldest daughters in the BBC production of King Lear in 1988 through the use of several effective film techniques, especially during the scene in which Lear curses Gonerill. In this scene, Lear curses Gonerill’s beauty and her potential for motherhood as he thinks this is all that matters to her, and sees this as being the ultimate punishment. Gonerill attempts to tell her father, in a nice way at first, that he and his retinue have overstayed their welcome and that the men that follow him have turned her home into “more like a tavern or a brothel” (I.iv.200). Lear seems to be both shocked and frustrated with the fact that Gonerill is confident and assertive enough to speak to him about such a matter, and takes such offence that he attempts to spoil the one thing that he envies of her and sees as being central to her existence – her sexuality. Gonerill’s hands move from her waist up onto her stomach and chest, clutching at her symbols of womanhood, as if Lear might try to take them away from her. Gonerill squirms uncomfortably as her father delivers his speech and the images of the Fool, Kent and Albany in the background show signs of absolute shock as they turn their heads away when Lear calls for her infertility. Lear calls for Gonerill’s sterility not because he sees it as being a fitting punishment for her treatment of him but due to a combination of the intense anger and jealousy he felt after confronting her, causing his emotions to take control of his actions. The medium of film
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