Throughout the beginning of time many respected cultures have had certain laws and ethnical codes most of them have some similarities but mostly they have opposite opinions or laws. Examples of these laws or ethics are in entries in the book Reading About The World Volume 1. As a final we were asked to compare and focus on six examples. They are The Code of Hammurabi, The Law: Exodus, On Forgiveness, Sermon on the Mount, Confucius: Analects, The Qu?ran, and Niccolo Machiavelli. I am going to begin discussing and stating laws or ethics on The Code of Hammurabi and then continue on as I have listed them above and I will be comparing them to one another and some of the stories to today?s society. The Code of Hammurabi is best known for it?s beautifully engraved diorite stela, an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings, which depicts the king receiving the law from Shamash, the god of justice. Hammurabi?s Code was a long lasting contribution of Mesopotamian civilization. The code tells us about the attitude and daily lives of ancient Babylon. To me it seemed as though the people were very dependent upon their slaves and had extreme punishment from those that disobeyed the laws concerning slaves. In rule number fifteen of the code it states, ? If anyone take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates [to escape], he shall be put to death.?(Brians 18) The people were also very harsh towards women and did not think of them as equals. In ancient Babylon time we see laws deviate from the egalitarian standard of ?an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth? but it has a twist to this because it also depended on the social status of the victim or attacker to decide it?s punishment or reward. In rule number 198 it shows how the social status of a person plays a role in the judgment of an incident. It states, ?If he, nobleman, put out the eye of a commoner, or break the bone of a [commoner], he shall pay one silver mina.? From the Code of Hammurabi we then get The Law: Exodus. The Law: Exodus derives from the Jewish Bible and is one of three parts. Of these three laws it was in some ways the most important, because it defines what God expects of them and provides a mean to ensure his favor and protection. The law was viewed as a blessing by God, which shows his chosen people the path to virtue while others who are in ignorant sin. Unlike Christians, Jewish people do not consider belief a central issue-obedience is. The Jewish people believed strongly in respect for their parents. An example of this was a law that states, ? Whoever strikes father or mother shall be put to death.?(Brians 43) Like the Code of Hammurabi Jewish beliefs were separated by social class and clearly showed that men were more important than women. There was also a high code for the importance of the laws on slavery. In comparison to Jewish Laws of Exodus there was the Christians beliefs that was On Forgiveness or the Sermon on the Mount. The Sermon on the Mount was the strongest commandment, which the Christians were asked to follow though it was completely unlike the Jewish law. The Jewish law required the fair treatment of enemies and called upon all crimes to be punished by ?an eye for and eye;? the Christians believed that you should ??Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be children of you Father in heaven ;for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good?.? (Brians 110) Therefore in Christian societies forgiveness was an important part of their religion. The sayings of Confucius were remembered by his followers and then were complied into a book of Analects. Through the book of Analects (sayings) we see that the nation was that of virtue and respect. Confucius is similar to the Golden Rule, ?do unto others as you would have them do unto you.? Confucius is equivalent to the Golden Rule in the way that it teaches the people to respect their elders and in return they will receive the same reward when they are older. In the Islamic World they had a sacred book of Islam called the Qur?an, which is believed by the Muslims to be the literal word of God dictated by an angle to the Prophet Muhammad and recited to his followers, who wrote it down and assembled the book after his death. It was divided into 114 suras, chapters. It is not only the must dominant religious work in Islam but also the most influential literary work in the Arabic-speaking world. Christianity, Judaism and Islam are all alike in the way that they all ??accept the idea of a Day of Judgment in which God will send the believers to Paradise and condemn the unbelievers to eternal torment.? Judaism and Islam are alike because they are the only monotheistic religions in the world. The last area that I would like to discuss is Niccolo Machiavelli: The Prince. Though Machiavelli?s work cannot be said to have any great impact on the world it ended and era of which writers felt obliged to cloak their recommendations on government. The passage talks about how a ruler needs to be able to act like a man and as a beast. The beast needs to be able to defend himself yet also be understanding. The passage states that a ruler needs to be ?? pious, faithful, humane, honest, and religious??, (Brians 272) these are important qualities but, it is often necessary to act contrary to faity, mercy, humaneness, and religion in order to preserve the state. In conclusion many of these passages had an effect on their respective societies and yet had a lot of the same common laws and codes. I hope that the information, which I have given, has helped you see the types of laws and ethics ancient societies had and are able to see these same codes and laws and ethics in our society today.