Sensation And Perception Essay

Sensation And Perception Essay

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Visual sensation and visual perception are the processes by which we see and understand our surroundings. The difference between these processes and the dividing line where sensation ends and perception begins is debatable, however some distinctions can be made. Sensation is a physiological function, and begins with reception, when the cornea and lens of the eye focus light on the photoreceptors (rods and cones) in the retina of the eye. After this, transduction occurs, transforming stimulus energy
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into nerve impulses. The next step is transmission, which is the movement of the data in the form of nerve impulses from the receptors to the brain. As sensation is physiological, all people obtain the same sensation from a given stimulus. Perception involves psychological processes, and the first automatic response is selection, which assists perceptual organisation and helps the brain sort the sensory elements into a whole picture. The next step is organisation, where elements are grouped
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into forms or shapes, followed by interpretation. Interpretation gives the stimulus meaning, and involves psychological characteristics such as attitude or prior experience and means that in some cases, our interpretation may vary from other people's. For example, two people sense a round, flat, shiny object, one from a poor country, another from a rich country. The rich person might understand the object to be a music compact disc because he has had prior experience with them, but
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the poor person may not know what it was as he has never seen one before. The visual perceptual principles are processes which are applied to incoming visual stimuli to help explain any inconsistencies that may occur when the perception process takes place. There are three main types, the Gestalt principles, depth cues and perceptual constancies. The Gestalt principles are based on the concept that we perceive objects in the simplest possible manner (Grivas et al 1996 page108),
Visual sensation differs from visual perception even though the two processes form a sequence. Our brain obtains meaning from what we look at through the process of sensation and ...
and describes how the brain organises, groups and simplifies visual stimuli. The depth cues are signals given from a visual stimulus (secondary cues), or from our own visual system (primary cues). These cues help us to perceive distance and depth, and can be either monocular (requiring only one eye) or binocular (requiring the use of both eyes). The perceptual constancies are visual stimuli which are put into three categories - brightness constancy, size constancy and shape constancy, which are
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thought to be innate, or learned while still very young. Perceptual constancy is the ability to understand that an object remains constant although changes occur in the retinal image. Brightness constancy occurs when an object is perceived to maintain a constant brightness, despite changes in lighting being present. Size constancy occurs when, although the retinal image of an object may change, we still perceive it to be the same size. The brain recognises that although the
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Visual perception and visual sensation are both interactive processes, although there is a significant difference between the two processes. Sensation is defined as the stimulation of sense organs Visual ...
retinal image is changing, the size of the object remains constant. An example is a train moving away from a station. The retinal image gets smaller as the train moves away, however we realise that the train is not actually shrinking. Instead, the brain uses size constancy and we understand that the train is moving away from us. Shape constancy involves recognising that although the image being cast on the retina changes, the shape of the object
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remains the same. When an object is viewed from different perspectives, the angle of the retinal image changes, however shape constancy compensates for that and we understand that the object remains constant. An example is a coin being flipped. As it spins, the retinal image suggests that the shape is changing because it changes from a circle to a half moon to a line, the automatic process of shape constancy enables us to understand that the coin remains
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the same shape. Although every person, given normal vision will sense the same image on their retina when seeing the coin flipping, their perception of the image may differ. Psychological factors influence our perception and give us our individuality. We each have a perceptual set made up of expectations, prior experience and psychological states that directs our attention and determines how we interpret visual stimuli. One psychological factor that influences perception is prior experience. Prior experience refers
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to the individual experiences which have some kind of personal significance. Each person has a different set of experiences, and those experiences will be interpreted differently by the individual according to such factors as upbringing, intelligence, personality and the values they hold. For example, my dog plays with her biscuits. One day I asked my friend to give her one, and he laughed at her when she growled and pawed at it. He had never
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seen a dog do that before, however I have seen it many times, and expect her to do it,
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