Evolution Of The Microprocessor Essay

Evolution Of The Microprocessor Essay

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Evolution of the microprocessorThe microprocessor has changed a lot over the years, says (Michael W.Davidson,http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/chipshot.html) Microprocessortechnology is progressing so rapidly that even experts in the field arehaving trouble keeping up with current advances. As more competitiondevelops in this $150 billion a year business, power and speed of themicroprocessor is expanding at an almost explosive rate. The changeshave been most evident over the last decade. The microprocessor haschanged the way computers work by making them faster. Themicroprocessor is often called the brain of the C.P.U.(or the centralprocessing unit)and without the microprocessor the computer is more orless useless. Motorola and Intel have invented most of themicroprocessors over the last decade. Over the years their has been aconstant battle over cutting edge technology. In the 80's Motorola wonthe battle, but now in the 90's it looks as Intel has won the war. The microprocessor 68000 is the original microprocessor(Encarta 95). Itwas invented by Motorola in the early 80's. The 68000 also had two verydistinct qualities like 24-bit physical addressing and a 16-bit databus. The original Apple Macintosh ,released in 1984, had the 8-MHzfound at the core of it. It was also found in the Macintosh Plus, theoriginal Macintosh SE, the Apple Laser-Writer IISC, and the Hewlett-Packard's LaserJet printer family. The 68000 was very efficient for itstime for example it could address 16 megabytes of memory, that is 16more times the memory than the Intel 8088 which was found in the IBM PC. Also the 68000 has a linear addressing architecture which was betterthan the 8088's segmented memory architecture because it made makinglarge applications more straightforward. The 68020 was invented by Motorola in the mid-80's(Encarta 95). The68020 is about two times as powerful as the 68000. The 68020 has 32-bitaddressing and a 32-bit data bus and is available in various speeds like16MHz, 20MHz, 25MHz, and 33MHz. The microprocessor 68020 is found in theoriginal Macintosh II and in the LaserWriter IINT both of which are fromApple. The 68030 microprocessor was invented by Motorola about a year after the68020 was released(Encarta 95). The 68030 has 32-bit addressing and a32-bit data bus just like it's previous model, but it has paged memorymanagement built into it, delaying the need for additional chips toprovide that function. A 16-MHz version was used in the Macintosh IIx,IIcx, and SE/30. A 25-MHz model was used in the Mac IIci and the NeXTcomputer. The 68030 is produced in various versions like the 20-MHz,33MHz, 40-MHz, and 50MHz. The microprocessor 68040 was invented by Motorola(Encarta 95). The68040 has a 32-bit addressing and a 32-bit data bus just like theprevious two microprocessors. But unlike the two previousmicroprocessors this one runs at 25MHz and includes a built-in floatingpoint unit and memory management units which includes 4-KB instructionand data coaches. Which just happens to eliminate the need additionalchips to provide these functions. Also the 68040 is capable of parallelinstruction execution by means of multiple independent instructionpipelines, multiple internal buses, and separate caches for both dataand instructions. The microprocessor 68881 was invented by Motorola for the use with bothmicroprocessor 68000 and the 68020(Encarta 95). Math coprocessors, ifsupported by the application software, would speed up any function thatis math-based. The microprocessor 68881 does this by additional set ofinstructions for high-proformance floating point arithmetic, a set offloating-point data registers, and 22 built-inconstants including p andpowers of 10. The microprocessor 68881 conforms to the ANSI/IEEE 754-1985 standard for binary floating-point arithmetic. When making theMacintosh II, Apple noticed that when they added a 68881, theimprovement in performance of the interface, and thus the apparentperformance was changed dramatically. Apple then decided to add it asstandard equipment. The microprocessor 80286, also called the 286was invented by Motorola in1982(Encarta 95). The 286 was included in the IBM PC/AT and compatible computers in 1984. The 286 has a 16-bit resister, transfers informationover the data bus 16 bits at a time, and use 24 bits to address memorylocation. The 286 was able to operate in two modes real (which iscompatible with MS-DOS and limits the 8086 and 8088 chips) and protected( which increases the microprocessor's functionality). Real mode limitsthe amount of memory the microprocessor can address to one megabyte ;inprotected mode, however the addressing access is increased and iscapable of accessing up to 16 megabytes of memory directly. Also, an286 microprocessor in protected mode protects the operating system frommis-behaved applications that could normally halt (or "crash") a systemwith a non-protected microprocessor such as the 80286 in real mode orjust the plain old 8088. The microprocessor 80386dx also called the 386 or the 386dx was inventedin 1985(Encarta 95). The 386 was used in IBM and compatiblemicrocomputers such as the PS/2 Model 80. The 386 is a full 32-bitmicroprocessor, meaning that it has a 32-bit resister, it can easilytransfer information over its data bus 32 bits at a time, and it can use32 bits in addressing memory. Like the earlier 80286, the 386 operatesin two modes, again real (which is compatible with MS-DOS and limits the8086 and 8088 chips) and protected ( which increases themicroprocessor's functionality and protects the operating system fromhalting because of an inadvertent application error.) Real mode limitsthe amount of memory the microprocessor can address to one megabyte ;inprotected mode, however the total amount of memory that the 386 canaddress directly is 4 gigabytes, that is roughly 4 billion bytes. The80386dx also has a virtual mode, which allows the operating systems toeffectively divide the 80386dx into several 8086 microprocessors eachhaving its own 1-megabyte space, allowing each "8086" to run its ownprogram. The microprocessor 80386sx also called the 386sx was invented by Intelin 1988 as a low-cost alternative to the 80386DX(Encarta 95). The80386SX is in essence an 80386DX processor limited by a 16-bit data bus.The 16-bit design allows 80386SX systems to be configured from lessexpensive AT-class parts, ensuring a much lower complete system price.The 80386SX offers enhanced performance over the 80286 and access tosoftware designed for the 80386DX. The 80386SX also offers 80386DXcomforts such as multitasking and virtual 8086 mode. The microprocessor 80387SX also called the 387SX was invented byIntel(Encarta 95). A math, or floating-point, coprocessor from Intelfor use with the 80386SX family of microprocessors. The 387sx isavailable in a 16-MHz version only, the 80387SX, if supported by theapplication software, can dramatically improve system performance byoffering arithmetic, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmicinstructions for the application to use-instructions not offered in the80386SX instruction set. The 80387SX also offers perfect operations forsine, cosine, tangent, arctangent, and logarithm calculations. If used,these additional instructions are carried out by the 80387SX, freeingthe 80386SX to perform other tasks. The 80387SX is capable of workingwith 32- and 64-bit integers, 32-, 64-, and 80-bit floating-pointnumbers, and 18-digit BCD (binary coded decimal) operands ;it coincidesto the ANSI/IEEE 754-1985 standard for binary floating-point arithmetic.The 80387SX operates individually on the 80386SX's mode, and it performsas expected regardless of whether the 80386SX is running in real,protected, or virtual 8086 mode. The microprocessor mi486 also called the 80486 or the 486 was inventedin 1989 by Intel(Encarta 95). Like its 80386 predecessor, the 486 is afull-bit processor with 32-bit registers, 32-bit data bus, and 32-bitaddressing. It includes several enhancements, however, including abuilt-in cache controller, the built-in equivalent of an 80387 floating-point coprocessor, and provisions for multiprocessing. In addition, the486 uses a "pipeline" execution scheme that breaks instructions intomultiple stages, resulting in much higher performance for many commondata and integer math operations.In conclusion it is evident by the following that microprocessors aredeveloping at leaps and bounds and it is not surprising that if by thetime it hits the teacher's desk or by the time you read this the nextsuperchip will be developed(Encarta 95).

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